A Thousand Fancies….

The power of objects to inspire a thousand fancies
Charles Paget Wade

Charles Paget Wade, a poet, architect, artist-craftsman and not forgetting keen collector of eclectic objects, to inspire.

This collection can be seen at Snowshill Manor, which Wade gave to the National Trust in 1951. The collection of course would not be complete without costume (2,200 items of 18th to 20th century to be precise) which is stored at Berrington Hall. The collection is cared for by Althea Mackenzie, Costume Curator.

This year Berrington Hall is bringing to life the Georgian interiors of the Hall by displaying costume, from The Charles Paget Wade Collection, Hereford Museum Resource and Learning Centre and COSPROP (costume from The Duchess and 1995 BBC production of Pride and Prejudice).

The displays shall enchant visitors by taking them on a journey, peeping into the lives and fashion of Georgian society.

Over the course of the year there will be an array of costume from The Charles Paget Wade Collection and costumes worn in Pride and Prejudice (1995) British television period drama and the film The Duchess (2008).

Pride and Prejudice was filmed at various locations including Lyme Park (exterior of Pemberley, Darcy’s estate in Derbyshire) and Sudbury Hall (interiors) both owned by the National Trust.

The Duchess was filmed at locations such as Chastworth House, Bath (including the Assembly Rooms and Royal Crescent) and Clandon Park.

The Duchess, a selected display of costumes from The Duchess (2008), includes the wedding dress worn by Keria Knightly on until 30th June 2014, costumes from COSPROP, Holloway Road.

‘Wearing The Garden’ looks at Georgian men’s fashion. The influence of gardens on fashion reveals an extravagant display of stunning waistcoats with embellished woven silk brocades. This exhibition will feature costumes from The Charles Paget Wade Collection and Hereford Museum Resources and Learning Centre on until 30th June 2014.

‘Big Bottoms and Small Waist’ reveals a display of undergarments through the centuries. This exhibition will feature undergarments from The Charles Paget Wade Collection and Hereford Museum Resources and Learning Centre on display from 1st July until 31st August 2014.

‘Pride and Prejudice’ a selection of costumes and accessories worn during filming of Pride and Prejudice in 1995. On display from 1st August until 31st October 2014, costumes from COSPROP, Holloway Road.

If you want to see if costume can inspire a thousand fancies, why not make a visit to Berrington Hall or see the blog featuring The Charles Paget Wade Collection written by Ellie Jones, Conservation and Engagement Manager.

I certainly felt inspired by my visit! What will inspire you today?

This post was written in collaboration with Ellie Jones, Conservation and Engagement Manager at Berrington Hall.  If you are interested in writing a post in collaboration with the author of Textile and Dress Historian please email textileanddresshistorian@gmail.com.

Dressing Or Dressing Up!

Accessories appeared for the first time when primitive man found his most satisfying expression in the use of body painting and tattooing, added to this his desire for ornamentation – rings dangling from ears, chains around his neck, and perhaps a feather or two in his hair.

The earliest articles of adornment reveal ornaments used on different parts of the body, and interestingly the location for these objects were places where objects seemed to fit naturally.

The parts of the body destined to display ornaments are those areas that are contracted or of a narrower portion above large bony or muscular structure – the forehead and temples, the neck and shoulders, the waist and hips, above and below the knee, the ankles, the upper arms, the wrist, and to a lesser degree, the fingers.

Feathers need little preparation for man’s use and the system of mounting them is very simple. Some years later, body covering or clothing came to be worn. Accessory articles appeared for the head, neck, shoulder, waist, legs and arms. Today we know these accessories as modern hats, bonnets, shawls, belts, girdles, shoes, bracelets and so forth.

The idea of accessories has developed and changed over the years, today when thinking about accessories ‘dressing up’ comes to mind. Accessories can ‘dress up’ an outfit by creating a focal point to an otherwise ordinary outfit. Accessories play a key role as they adorn the body and enhance our appearance.

Over the years accessories have changed to complement the every changing style in fashion.

The history of the mask is one of surprising interest. Nearly every race has found some use for the mask. Perhaps the painted face of a primitive warrior inspired the first mask.

Accessories are items which stand alone and with the right ensemble complete an outfit.  A minority of accessories have no function but to look aesthetically pleasing. A classic example would be: a bracelet or brooch. A bracelet sits on the wrist and its only purpose is to glisten in the light and attract attention. The sample principle would apply to a brooch. It is attached to a jumper or jacket with a pin, however; it does not hold the jacket in place as it is only a form of decoration.

Hat-pins do have a function: they hold a hat in the correct position and stop it from falling off. On the contrary, a hat ornament has no function at all. Although a hat ornament remains tied to a form of necessity, etiquette and formality, which is distinguished from the use of a hatpin. The use of a hat ornament allowed a lady of ‘the leisure class’ or wealth the ability to distinguish herself from other social classes.

Is an accessory an object or could it be an extension of our personality?

Be My Valentine

It is said that St. Valentine’s Day probably originates from a pagan fertility festival in pre-Roman times or it could be a liturgical celebration of one or more early Christian saints named Valentinus? Where ever its origins may rest, the day appears to be associated with romance and love.

During the 15th century the occasion evolves by lovers expressing their affection for one another in the form of sending flowers, greeting cards “Valentines” and even confectionary – chocolate or sweets. Yet, it is interesting to see that since the 19th century the notion of a handwritten valentine’s card is sadly superseded by mass-production.

Valentine’s Day has become a commercial opportunity with the use of hearts, doves and the figure of the winged cupid to symbolise love.

We even see a tradition of chivalrous gentlemen sending a pair of gloves to their loved one as a proposal. He waits hopelessly hoping that his loved one will wear then to church on a Sunday in acceptance of his proposal.

Might you receive a pair of gloves this Valentine’s Day?

Sophisticated Selfridge

Yesterday evening the winter waiting was over. Our TV’s saw the delights of the opening episode of the second series of Mr Selfridge on ITV One.

We find ourselves in 1914. On the one hand World War I is about to begin and on the other Selfridges is celebrating its 5th anniversary.

The glamour of perfume and cosmetics appear to have found a place in the store. However fear not, the classic accessory of gloves is still to be seen adorning many a female hand and gentlemen or too, including Harry Gordon Selfridge.

The fashion of 1914 takes us from the rigid Victorian era where corsets were tightly laced to the Edwardian era where fashions loosen up towards a modern style.

Let’s step back in time for a moment. Harry Gordon Selfridge born during 1858 in Wisconsin, United States. In 1890 at the age of 32, Harry married Rosalie Buckingham. During 1906 Harry and Rosaile made a visit to England which would change their lives forever.

On his travels Harry noted that stores in London had not adopted the ideas that stores used in the United States. This encouraged Harry Gordon Selfridge to travel across the ocean from Chicago to England to open a store in London in 1909.  A store that would revolutionise the idea of buying goods. To make a spectacle of shopping, a sense of theatre by luring potential customers into the store to peer upon the most beautiful displays.

Selfridges is still flourishing today after 105 years!

Stitched Cloth or Exemplum

The word sampler is from the Latin ‘exemplum’ – an example

There was a time when needleworkers did not have the use of pre-printed patterns. This meant that when ever they noticed a design or motif that they liked it would need to be captured (stitched) as an example, for future reference.

A cloth would be stitched to form a small example. Soon the cloth was referred to as a ‘sampler’, as it would have randomly placed designs or patterns. Perhaps one day the design or pattern would be embroidered onto a pocket, cuff or hem line. You could almost say that the cloth was a working diary of a needleworker, collected over their lifetime.

Peruvian Nazca Sampler 2nd Century BC
Peruvian Nazca Sampler 2nd Century BC

The earliest examples of cloth used to record stitched patterns or a design is thought to have been worked by the ancient Peruvian Nazca culture.

A sampler developed into a embroidery produced, by young females, displaying a demonstration or test of their skills in needlework. It would often show some form of figures, motifs or have decorative borders. On occasions the needleworker would embroider their name and the date.

Jane Bostocke 1598
Jane Bostocke 1598

The history of this type of sampler dates back to the 16th century. The earliest dated example, at the Victoria & Albert Museum, London was made by Jane Bostocke in 1598.

Borders were introduced in the 17th century and by the mid-1600s alphabets came into common use. We also see religious or moral quotations, suggesting that the finished sampler was methodically organised.

By the 18th century samplers seemed a complete contrast to their predecessors. These samplers were stitched to demonstrate knowledge than to preserve skills.

Samplers are scattered all around the world and can be seen in various locations or settings. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York has a sampler made by the Peruvian Nazca culture from cotton and camelid hair. Records suggest the sampler was produced in the 2nd century BC.

The Victorian & Albert Museum, London has samplers by Elizabeth Parker and Jane Bostocke. The earliest dated sampler in Hull Museums Collection was produced by Elizabeth Clark in 1742, with an alphabet and flower motifs. The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge has samplers dating from the late 16th century to 20th century. There is a stunning piece worked by Mary Derow in 1723.

I am even surprised to find ‘The Sampler Tea Room & Museum’ in Pembrokeshire. Samplers can be seen at a variety of National Trust properties in historic setting such as Tintinhull House, Somerset; Berrington Hall, Herefordshire; Hill Top, Cumbria and Montacute House, Somerset.

Please contact each individual museum or National Trust property before making a visit to check if the samplers are on public display or if you are required to make an appointment in advance with a curator.

Jacobean Sampler
Jacobean Sampler

Today, samplers are widely used but for a leisurely activity. You can purchase a kit with the pattern, cloth and threads required to produce your own work of embroidered art.

Without the care and expertise of museums and national trust properties these fragile pieces of embroidered cloth would be lost forever and the makers forgotten.

Sacred Stitches

Valance Detail, French, 1560-1969. Photography: Sarah Jane Kenyon © Sarah Jane Kenyon 2013.

The title of this recent exhibition at Waddesdon Manor (ended 27th October 2013) provoked connections between stitched objects and devotion to religion. The Christian Church held textiles as sumptuous articles, which were also used. Textiles would be embellished in the forms of vestments for wear and fabrics for furnishings, such as altar frontals.

Left: Panel depicting a Saint, probably Mary Magdalene, French, c 1400. Photography: Mike Fear © The National Trust, Waddesdon Manor.
Image robe, French? 1775-1800. Photography: Mike Fear © The National Trust, Waddesdon Manor.
Right: Embroidered panel showing the Queen of Sheba before King Solomon, now mounted as a cushion, Swiss, 1575-1600. Photography: Mike Fear © The National Trust, Waddesdon Manor.

Sacred Stitches brought forth the value of textiles with a posing juxtaposition: extremely sacred or a fragment of the past? Perhaps revealing the engagement of a textiles journey – what it might be made for and how its ownerships and uses would remove it from its origins, pride of place in a church or cathedral.

ValanceFrench, 1560-1969. Photography: Mike Fear © The National Trust, Waddesdon Manor.

I was lucky enough to have a personal guided tour of the exhibition before it ended with Rachel Boak, Senior Curator at Waddesdon Manor, responsible for the textile and costume collections.

Rachel with her torch at hand guided me around the exhibition to shed light on the essence of the exhibition, craftsmanship.

Rachel summarised the exhibition:

Ecclesiastical textiles once made to adorn churches and cathedrals and later adapted as secular furnishings were displayed in the exhibition Sacred Stitches: Ecclesiastical Textiles in the Rothschild Collection at Waddesdon Manor. Entirely drawn from the stored collections at Waddesdon, the textiles included stunning 15th -century embroidered panels depicting saints, once part of an altar frontal and later mounted as banners, and 19th -century furniture mounted with fragments from 16th -century vestments.

Quickly I realised how much time Rachel had spent researching the subject matter of the exhibition, which can be seen presented in the catalogue, Sacred Stitches: Ecclesiastical Textiles in the Rothschild Collection at Waddesdon Manor available in the Waddesdon shop or online.

Left: Sofa mounted with panels from dalmatics, Italian or Spanish (sofa frame English), 1600-1625 (embroidery), c 1880 (frame). Photography: Mike Fear © The National Trust, Waddesdon Manor.

Right: Sofa covered with embroidery depicting Moses in the bulrushes, Italian (sofa frame English), 1650-1700 (embroidery), c 1880 (frame). Photography: Mike Fear © The National Trust, Waddesdon Manor.

It is fascinating to see generations of the Rothschild family as keen collectors of textiles from Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild (1839-1898), Alice de Rothschild (1847-1922) to Baroness Edmond de Rothschild (1853-1935). What is more intriguing is that the Rothschild family are Jewish, yet it was the technical and aesthetic accomplishment of the textiles that appealed to them, not necessarily the intentions of its use. It is as though the family realised the value of collecting and holding onto craftsmanship from the past, something sacred.

This post was written in collaboration with Rachel Boak, Senior Curator at Waddesdon Manor.  If you are interested in writing a post in collaboration with the author of Textile and Dress Historian please email textileanddresshistorian@gmail.com.

Below a detailed list of images featured in this post:

Panel depicting a Saint, probably Mary Magdalene, French, c 1400; linen, embroidered with coloured silks in split stitch and with silver-gilt and silver thread in various forms of couched work; 740 x 307mm; accession number 3032.4. Originally part of an altar frontal depicting saints in a colonnade, this panel is one of five acquired by Alice de Rothschild in the late 19th century and mounted in red velvet as banners.

Image robe, French? 1775-1800; silk taffeta, embroidered with silver thread, strip, purl and spangles in stem and satin stitches and couched work, trimmed with silk bobbin lace; 170 x 185 x 450mm (length of outer edge); accession number 6154. Image robes are small, doll-like clothes made to be worn by statues, called images, of the Virgin Mary and other saints when processed through the streets and in churches. The back of this image robe is open and it fastens with a drawstring at the neck, for ease of mounting on a small figure. The patterns embroidered in silver are large for the scale of the robe, suggesting that it has been cut from something else, probably a woman’s dress. The robe was acquired by Baroness Edmond de Rothschild.

Embroidered panel showing the Queen of Sheba before King Solomon, now mounted as a cushion, Swiss,1575-1600; linen, wool and metal thread embroidered in couched work, long-and-short and stem stitches, with some raised work; 460 x 565mm; accession number 5355. This may have been the central section of an upper valance for a bed, but at some point it has been cut out and then separately mounted as a cushion in the 19th century. It was acquired by Alice de Rothschild.

Valance, French, 1560-1569 (with later additions); silk satin, backed with heavy linen canvas and embroidered with coloured floss silks and silver-gilt thread in long-and-short, satin, spaced satin, stem and split stitches and couched work; ground covered with floss silk gobelin stitches (imitating tapestry weave); silk braid and fringe; lined with modern cotton; 1900 x 485mm; accession number 7179. This detail shows one of the figures making up the grotesque-style decoration. Embroidered with verses from the Bible, the valance was originally one of three upper valances for a bed. It was used as a decorative hanging in Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild’s Smoking Room at Waddesdon.

Sofa mounted with panels from dalmatics, Italian or Spanish (sofa frame English), 1600-1625 (embroidery), c 1880 (frame); wood, silk velvet, appliquéd silk, backed with linen and paper, outlined with cord in silk and metal thread; 760 x 1175 x 720mm; Accession number 578. Red velvet of varying colours and ages has been cut and pieced from different vestments to fit the dimensions of this sofa, possibly made by the English firm, Howard & Sons. The crossed keys of St Peter on the back and arms indicate the former ecclesiastical use of the textiles as apparels on a dalmatic, a T-shaped vestment with decorative panels on the front, back and sleeves. Photography: Mike Fear © The National Trust, Waddesdon Manor.

Sofa covered with embroidery depicting Moses in the bulrushes, Italian (sofa frame English), 1650-1700 (embroidery), c 1880 (frame); wood, linen, embroidered with coloured silks in long-and-short, shaded satin and stem stitches, and laid work; 755 x 1106 x 720mm; accession number 577. The embroideries mounted on the sofa are not from vestments, but, on the back of the seat, the scene shows the finding of the baby Moses in the bulrushes of the River Nile by Pharaoh’s daughter. Both sofas were used by Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild in the Bachelors’ Wing at Waddesdon. Photography: Mike Fear © The National Trust, Waddesdon Manor.

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Woven Words

Felt Corset, Sitting 2005
Felt Corset, Sitting 2005

By studying ‘Textiles’ at Goldsmiths College, University of London I walked the corridors that were once filled by the presence of Mary Quant, Bridget Riley and Antony Gormley. I feel humble that I can say I have studied where some of the greatest designers and artists first found their inspiration.

So here is a question for you, what does textiles mean?

During my time at Goldsmiths we were often critiqued about our practice and encouraged to explore the meanings and use of textiles. Studying textiles at Goldsmiths meant pushing the boundaries of what textiles was. Could textiles be the process to explore or rationalise an idea? Would the final outcome present a body of work far removed from textiles – an installation of thoughts presented in film or photography.

I often remember a particular tutor, pushing the boundaries of the word ‘textiles’ and breaking it down into ‘text’ and ‘iles’. Text – meaning the obvious a ‘word’ or group of words that might be printed or interpreted in a form that is read in order to explain something. Leaving ‘iles’ 4 letters floating alone, what do they mean? Mr Google tells me it could be a surname or acronym. So perhaps the conclusion my tutor was trying to get across was that textiles were a way of weaving ideas, to tell a story, to be read.

Away from the conceptual world,  ‘textiles’ in the simplest form are fabric or cloth, perhaps woven? The Latin word for ‘textiles’ is Textilis – a woven fabric, piece of cloth.

Textiles are made from fibres – natural or man-made. Natural fibres fall under 2 categories – animal and vegetable. Animal: silk or wool and vegetable: cotton, linen or jute. The methods of making a cloth or fabric have developed and evolved over time from hand weaving to industrialised looms. Man-made fibres such as nylon or polyester were produced commercially in the 20th century.

The world is made up of various forms of cloth or fabric which are then used to cover and drape. It may be woven, felted, knitted, printed, embroidered or embellished with beads or metal spangles. Perhaps a cloth or fabric reveal a woven or embellished history of its own heritage?

Textiles can be found in your home, museums or historic houses. Today, whether we see it or not textiles surround us in every possible way from our curtains, duvet, carpet, dressing gown, sofa, dress, tights, trousers, or shoes.

Textiles can vary in size and scale. They can be flat, 3-dimensinal or sculptural. Perhaps textiles are ubiquitous objects? Textiles may have a function or be a simple display of craftsmanship or aesthetics.

National Trust properties display thousands of examples of textiles from state beds, hangings, curtains, furnishings, samplers and are often eclectic or collected over several generations.

Waddesden Manor offers a stunning journey of embellished textiles, woven in every corner. The Rothschild family were keen collectors and when you see the house for yourself you will see why. The Manor is grand, yet for a moment you feel like you are peeping through the looking glass reflecting on the Rothschild’s family life. The objects appear in an aquatic half light, longing for daylight and to be used again.

Folded Beauty
Folded Beauty

Folded Beauty: Masterpieces In Linen by Joan Sallas on display at Waddesdon Manor until 27th October 2013, weaves the journey of textiles to the modern day.

This exhibition is a contemporary take on an old tradition of folding napkins, a tradition which originated in Europe 500 years ago. What we see on display is a work of art with the splendid backdrop provided by the Rothschild collection. Through out the Manor there are stunning objects made from linen napkins, sitting proudly out of place to make you stop and stare. At the end of your journey around the Manor you are even invited to make your own napkin.

If you hurry you have time to visit Waddesden Manor before the napkins are folded away!